Archive | June 2012

SYRIAN WOMAN HADITH SCHOLAR: Bå’ i Khåtun bint Ali ad-Dimishqiyyah

Forecourt of the Ummayad Mosque in Damascus, 1890: Courtesy : http://gustav-bauernfeind.blogspot.com

Bå’ i Khåtun bint Ali ad-Dimishqiyyah: (775/1374-864/1461)

She was a  lady hadith scholar from Syria who lived in Damascus and studied with Abu Bakr Al Mizzi and other scholars.

She had a large number of ijåzas (PhD equivalent Degrees) from Hadith Scholars both men and women.

Al Azhar Mosque 972: Courtesy: http://islamic-arts.org/

She gave lectures in Syria and then in Cairo

She was a leader among her people and a woman of excellent character.

Excerpt from: Muslim Women, a Biographical Dictionary by Aisha Bewley

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HOW OLD WAS AISHA (RA) WHEN SHE MARRIED PROPHET MUHAMMAD PBUH?

An exotic flower blooms in South Africa……..untended

A review of Hadith and the age of Aisha (RA ) at the time of marriage to RasoolAllah pbuh.

There is no Hadith about the age of Ayesha,r,a.

Lack of knowledge leads to defense of non-issues

In 1986 I wrote an article which showed that the narrative about the age of the wife of the Prophet, pbuh, Ayesha Siddiqa, r.a., which is published in Imam Bukhari’s Sahih, is contradicted by many other narratives in books of hadith.

It was the first article in English on the subject in America and was well liked by people who wanted to contradict the attacks of the Perwaizi sect and answer the abuse by neo-cons like General Boykin and Spencer.

Many people published my article, often with minor changes, but without noting that they had gotten it from me, thus contradicting the first rule of Hadith that you must give your source.

As I have continued my hadith studies, I have found that there is NO hadith from the Prophet, pbuh, giving the age of Ayesha, r.a., when he married her.

Bukhari himself does not say that the narrative in his book about her age is from the Prophet, pbuh. His book has so much prestige that we took it or granted that whatever is in his book must be from the Prophet, pbuh. It is not and he does not say it is.

A hadith of the Prophet, pbuh, is about what he said, did or approved of or is about his qualities.. [1] None of these three aspects relate to the narrative about the age  of  Ayesha, r.a.

Even a hadith which is from the Prophet, pbuh, but is not narrated by a sahabi [Companion of the Prophet, pbuh]  but is from a taba’i, [generation after the Sahaba], is called MURSAL and lacks authenticity and does  not have  HUJJAT [religious acceptability] in Islam.[2]. The only exceptions are Taba’i narrators who had met numerous sahaba. [3]

What is important about Ayesha, r.a. is that the Prophet, pbuh, loved her and died in her arms.[4] She was a scholar, teacher, faqih, leader, orator, fighter and pious beyond all requirements. The verses of the Qur’an which defend her and reveal Islamic laws owing to her actions, show that she was a person of great mental and spiritual maturity.

The issue of her age is meant to trivialize her significance.

We fell into the trap.

The Mother of the Believers needs no  defense.

May Allah forgive our sins and shortcomings.

 BIBLIOGRAPHY

[1]. Ibn Hajar al-Asqalani, d. 852 Hijri, in Tehzeeb al-Tehzeeb, Urdu translation.

[2]. Khateeb Baghdadi, d. 463 Hijri, in al-kifaya if ‘ilm al-riwaya. Urdu translation.

[3]Modern scholars agree. See See Khalil-ur-Rahman Chishti’s Hadith ki ahmiat awr zaroorat, [Urdu], published in 1420 H.

[4] “Dying became easier for me when I was shown Ayesha in paradise. It was as if I could see her hands.” [Prophet Muhammad, pbuh, narrated by Ishaq bin Talha, in Tabqat al-Kubra, biographical collection of Hadith compiled by ibn Sa’ad in 230 Hijri.]

WHO CREATED THE RELATIONSHIPS OF LOVE & MERCY? Surah Al Furqan25:54

To love and honor………….

 وَهُوَ الَّذِي خَلَقَ مِنَ الْمَاءِ بَشَرًا فَجَعَلَهُ نَسَبًا وَصِهْرًا ۗ وَكَانَ رَبُّكَ قَدِيرًا﴿٥٤

[25:54] Yusuf Ali
It is He Who has created man from water: then has He established relationships of lineage and marriage: for thy Lord has power (over all things).

WHY DO SOME PEOPLE CRITICIZE THE PROPHET’S (PBUH) COMPANION: ABU HURAIRA R.A.?

FOR “WHO IS ABU HURAIRA ?” PLEASE CLICK HERE……

This beloved companion of the Prophet, pbuh (Abu Huraira) , is under attack by the sectarians and others who wish to divide and weaken the Ummah by causing “doubt” and sowing hatred. Why?

Here are some reasons derived from an analytical study of the objections and investigation into the reliability and authenticity of what they have purported regarding Abu Huraira R.A.:

WHY DO THESE PEOPLE HATE ABU HURAIRA, r.a.?

  • For the sectarians there seems to be an element of jealousy (personal and projected) that Abu Huraira, r.a., came into the Islamic struggle in its final years and equalled, if not surpassed, most companions of the Prophet, pbuh, in many ways, and in particular in the narration of the Prophet’s Hadith. In examining the behavior of the companions of the Prophet (pbuh) no such competitive jealousy or negativity is apparent at all.
  •  It is thus the base nature of the recent reviewers who have sown their petty feelings of competition in the blessed field of love and devotion that the companions had for each other and for our Prophet pbuh.
  • Abu Huraira, r.a., remained neutral in the conflict between Hazrat Ali and Ameer Muawiya as well as in the confrontation between Hazrat Ali and ‘Ayesha Siddiqa, r.a. Like Hasan,r.a., the elder son of Ali, r.a., Abu Huraira opposed the inter-Muslim conflicts.
  • The sectarians claim that Hazrat Ali spoke against Abu Huraira, r.a. In reviewing the literature both historical and of the hadith and seerah there is no such evidence. There are a couple of statements which appeared long after the two had passed away which have been erroneously and without sound authenticity attributed to Ali, r.a., against Abu Huraira. On close examination these are fabrications produced much after both Ali and Abu Huraira had passed away.
  • In the sectarian attack distributed by Syed Jarchavi, the person named Awan claims that Abu Huraira, r.a., was “hired” by Muawiyya. This is a figment of Awan’s imagination. Most modern readers would not know that during the rule of Ameer Muawiyya there was PEACE AND UNITY in the Muslim realm. Imam Hasan had made peace with Ameer Muawiyya and a spirit of cooperation existed among all segments of society. There was no question of anyone “hiring” Abu Huraira, r.a.

WHY ARE THE ANTI-HADITH PEOPLE AGAINST ABU HURAIRA, r.a.? 

The anti hadith people have a desire to break the Quran from the Sunnah and ride on their whims and inclinations. The Quran warns us of such inclinations and such people who argue against the obedience of Allah and obedience of His Rasool pbuh.

The actions of the anti hadith people may also have stemmed from a desire to create something new in the Deen to give it life by its “fresh interpretation”. Such self-proclaimed “scholars” have a tendency to announce something which has “shock value” just to get attention.

It is most unfortunate, because many others who are not scholars of Deen may be misled by the sensationalism that rides the wave of disrespect of the Quran and the Sunnah. This is at the heart of the problem of criticizing Abu Huraira RA.

OTHER REASONS:

  • For the anti-Hadith self-proclaimed scholars, Abu Huraira, r.a., may pose  a problem because he has narrated more Hadith of the Prophet, pbuh., than any other sahabi. 
Targeting him is a way to target most of the ahadiths recorded.
  • In their myopic view If Abu Huraira, r.a., could be discredited then a big chunk of Hadith could be discredited.

The anti-Hadith people are dishonest even in their critic of Abu Huraira and the Hadith:

Although they oppose Hadith and claim that they want the “Qur’an alone,” they turn around and relate some Hadith narrations in which they claim that ‘Ayesha, r.a., and Umar, r.a., looked critically at a few of Abu Huraira’s narrations. So they are antihadith but they quote hadith as being authentic to back their opinions.

Those who want to get rid of the Hadith and Sunnah and proclaim their own Sunnah over the Sunnah of the Prophet pbuh are using these couple of instances of discussion on a hadith to cast suspicion on Abu Huraira r.a and the hadith he related.

The impression these anti hadith people want to perpetrate is that ALL of Abu Huraira’s narrations should be suspected. This would in their eyes give them free license to pick whichever practices of our Deen that they desire and discard what they so desire.

 In the final analysis the Fear of Allah has left the hearts of those who manipulate the words of Allah and His Rasool pbuh and deceive and lure others into disobedience by making evil look innocent and vice versa.

We know from the Quran that all those who deliberately mislead others because of their inclinations or other reasons will not only suffer for their own disobedience but will be responsible for the disobedience perpetrated due to their misguidance of the Quran and Sunnah.

Allah knows best.

DUA:

courtesy: asqfish.wordpress.com

Astighfirullahi wa Atubu Alaik!

WHO WAS ABU HURAIRA r.a?

Who was Abu Huraira RA? (The lover of cats so much that this became his name)

There can be no doubt that Muhammad Mustafa, the final messenger of Allah, pbuh, loved Abu Huraira, r.a. and in turn Abu Huraira, r.a., loved Muhammad, pbuh, more than anyone or anything in the world.

Here is a short history to this companion of Prophet Muhammad pbuh who was an avid scribe and noted each and every moment with Prophet Muhammad pbuh in as much detail as possible.

HERE ARE SOME FACTS ABOUT HIM:

  • Abu Huraira, r.a., along with 70 others from the Banu Dos tribe, embraced Islam and did Hijrah to join forces with Muhammad, pbuh.
  • Abu Huraira, r.a., left everything in the world to embrace the Prophet, pbuh. He took his mother and his slave with him on the journey to Madinah leaving everything else behind. When he reached Madinah, he found that the Prophet, pbuh, was in Khaibar, fighting a Jewish tribe.
  • Abu Huraira, r.a., joined the Prophet, pbuh, in the final days of the battle at Khaibar, in the 7th year of the Hijrah. His first act on meeting the Prophet, pbuh, was TO FREE HIS SLAVE. Islam teaches the freeing the slaves and Abu Huraira, r.a., started his life with the Prophet, pbuh, by freeing his slave.
  • The Prophet, pbuh, took Abu Huraira, r.a., with him on a series of Jihad expeditions immediately after the battle of Khaibar. Some eyewitness narrations of these expeditions by Abu Huraira, r.a., are available in Hadith and in early history books. The purpose was to ward off attacks by Jewish and other tribes, which were moving to attack the Muslims. For instance there is a narration by Abu Huraira about the expedition of Wadi al-Qurra in Tabari’s TARIKH, vol. 3. A very severe expedition was that of Zaat ar-raqa’a. Some details in Bukhari’s Sahih indicate that there was only one camel for six mujahideen. They rode by turns and the rough terrain tore up the feet of the Sahaba. Abu Huraira, r.a., prayed Salatul Khauf with the Prophet, pbuh, on this expedition. 
[Bukhari’s Sahih, vol. 2]
  • Abu Huraira, r.a., then took part in major Islamic moves by the Prophet’s, pbuh, army, including the CONQUEST of MAKKA, 8 Hijri, BATTLE of HUNAIN,, and in the expedition of TABOOK, 9 Hijri. Tabook was very difficult and required a journey of 350 miles in severe summer weather, which challenged the Romans for 20 days and foiled their attack plans. 
[See Bukhari’s Sahih, vol. 2, for Abu Huraira’s participation.]
  • After these major moves, the Prophet, pbuh, also sent out Abu Huraira, r.a., in smaller raids to stop various threats. On one such occasion, the Prophet, pbuh, said to Abu Huraira, r.a. “I put you under Allah’s Trust and safeguard and He is the one whose Trust is never wasted.” 
[ Sunan of Ibn Maja, vol.2]
  • During the Caliphate of Abu Bakr, ‘Umar and ‘Usman [Allah be pleased with all three], Abu Huraira, r.a., continued to participate in Jihad. One of the HISTORY CHANGING battles in Islamic history was the BATTLE OF YARMOUK, which brought down the power of the Roman Empire. The historian Ibn Asakir in his Tarikh Damishq writes that the Banu Azd, with its sub group of the Banu Dos, with Abu Huraira, r.a., in its core, was on the RIGHT WING of the Islamic army. The huge Roman army attacked and the outnumbered Muslims would have been wiped out but for the leadership of great companions of the Prophet, pbuh, such as Abu Huraira. Ibn Asakir quotes Abu Huraira, r.a., as he rallied the mujahideen. Abu Huraira said:

“O valiant believers! The hoories of Paradise are awaiting you. Prepare yourself to meet them. Prepare to gain the approach to Allah and to be accepted by Allah. At this time, no place is dearer to Allah than the one where you are standing.”

The ferocious Roman onslaught was beaten back. At that point, another 20,000 Romans attacked the small group led by Abu Huraira, r.a. Khalid ibn al-Waleed, r.a., the overall commander of the Islamic army noted the severe pressure on the right wing of his forces. He launched an all out attack on the Romans and routed them. Yarmouk changed the history of the Middle East forever.

Other historians, Ibn Athir, Ibn Kathir, have noted the participation of Abu Huraira in Jihad as far away as Jilan and Jurjan during the Caliphate of ‘Usman, r.a.

WHY DO SOME SECTARIANS ATTEMPT TO DISCREDIT THIS COMPANION OF OUR RASOOL PBUH? CLICK HERE TO READ……..


[KEY TO ABBREVIATIONS: r.a. = radi Allah unh =Allah be pleased with him.] 
[pbuh = peace be on him. ]

WAS THE HADITH WRITTEN IN THE TIME OF THE PROPHET PBUH ? PART TWO OF TWO

Question from Sis. N. In Detroit [From a long letter]:

I am originally from Iran, moving to real Islam, Qur’an and Hadith. I read a good book by Fazlur Rahman (Chicago University) but it confused me on some points. He writes, Hadith was written in third century after the Prophet. New Trend’s web site says follow Qur’an and Hadith. I am confused please explain why Hadith was not written in time of the Prophet pbuh ?

ANSWER PART TWO OF TWO

Dr. Fazlur Rahman was influenced by Christian missionaries and Jewish orientalists. He tried to confuse the Muslims of Pakistan, with the support of the military government, but was defeated and fled to America where he was immediately given a senior position at Chicago University to teach Islam.

Both the Qur’an and the Hadith were written down in the time of the Prophet Muhammad (pbuh). The Qur’an is the word of Allah revealed to Muhammad (peace be on him). The Hadith is the commentary, explanation, implementation of the Qur’an by Muhammad (pbuh). Both are interlinked and essential to each other. No authentic Islamic scholar has ever tried to say that Hadith is not necessary or was written later.

 The people, who wrote down the Qur’an, on bits and pieces of materials, were the SAHABA or companions of the Prophet (pbuh). Paper and printing were not available at that time. So, people could not go around with printed and bound copies of the Qur’an. Even the collation and putting together of the Qur’an was done by the SAHABA so that the Qur’an became a BOOK between two covers after the Prophet (pbuh) passed away. This great work was done under the supervision of Abu Bakr, Umar, Osman and Ali (may Allah be pleased with them all). They were the first four rightly guided Caliphs of Islam.

The same SAHABA also wrote and transmitted the Hadith and made sure that nothing was falsely attributed to the Prophet (pbuh).

The Sahaba also MEMORIZED the QUR’AN. In fact few of them had it in writing but many of them knew it from memory. The cross checking of memory with writing was carried out to make sure that the Qur’an as revealed to the Prophet, pbuh, was transmitted to future generations and across continents as people in droves embraced islam:

بِسْمِ اللَّـهِ الرَّحْمَـٰنِ الرَّحِيمِ

إِذَا جَاءَ نَصْرُ اللَّـهِ وَالْفَتْحُ ﴿١﴾ وَرَأَيْتَ النَّاسَ يَدْخُلُونَ فِي دِينِ اللَّـهِ أَفْوَاجًا ﴿٢

[110:1] Yusuf Ali

When comes the Help of Allah, and Victory,

[110:2] Yusuf Ali

And thou dost see the people enter Allah’s Religion in crowds,

The HADITH was also memorized by the SAHABA and transmitted to future generations. Any scholar of Hadith had to MEMORIZE the HADITH from the written collections of the Sahaba and then RECITE IT FROM MEMORY to his/her teacher. Thus an accurate record of the Prophet’s, pbuh, life and teachings was enshrined in the scholarship of the Muslim world.

In the era after the SAHABA various kinds of sects arose which tried to disseminate their own versions of the Qur’an. Some of them claimed that Hazrat Ali (r.a.) had received suras of the Qur’an from the Prophet, pbuh, which no one else had. The scholars of the line of Ali (r.a.) and Fatima (r.a.), such as Imam Jafar and Imam Baqir, were able to repudiate these claims because they had the Qur’an both by memory and in writing.

Similarly attempts were made to invent “Hadith.” This was a very serious effort by Kings and emperors who wanted religion to justify their tyranny and to create a “tame Islam.” The problem was aggravated by the fact that various SAHABA had migrated to various cities, and after they passed away, various people could claim that they had heard Hadith from them.

It was in that context that great scholars like Imam Bukhari stepped forward to ENSURE that fabrications did not enter the corpus of Hadith. I think that these scholars were a bit too strict and as a result they sometimes designated as “weak” even those Hadith which were authentic but which would not pass the test of extremely severe scrutiny.

Imam Bukhari and other imams are the ones Dr. Fazlur Rahman was quoting without confirming hadith chronology when he claimed that Hadith was written in the third century after the Prophet pbuh.

Unfortunately Fazlur Rahman was ignorant of the chronology of the collection and documentation of the Hadith and hence recklessly fell into the trap set for him by Christian missionaries and Jewish orientalists.

 

May Allah Subhanawataala forgive us for our mistakes.

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