Who was Abu Huraira RA? (The lover of cats so much that this became his name)
There can be no doubt that Muhammad Mustafa, the final messenger of Allah, pbuh, loved Abu Huraira, r.a. and in turn Abu Huraira, r.a., loved Muhammad, pbuh, more than anyone or anything in the world.
Here is a short history to this companion of Prophet Muhammad pbuh who was an avid scribe and noted each and every moment with Prophet Muhammad pbuh in as much detail as possible.
HERE ARE SOME FACTS ABOUT HIM:
- Abu Huraira, r.a., along with 70 others from the Banu Dos tribe, embraced Islam and did Hijrah to join forces with Muhammad, pbuh.
- Abu Huraira, r.a., left everything in the world to embrace the Prophet, pbuh. He took his mother and his slave with him on the journey to Madinah leaving everything else behind. When he reached Madinah, he found that the Prophet, pbuh, was in Khaibar, fighting a Jewish tribe.
- Abu Huraira, r.a., joined the Prophet, pbuh, in the final days of the battle at Khaibar, in the 7th year of the Hijrah. His first act on meeting the Prophet, pbuh, was TO FREE HIS SLAVE. Islam teaches the freeing the slaves and Abu Huraira, r.a., started his life with the Prophet, pbuh, by freeing his slave.
- The Prophet, pbuh, took Abu Huraira, r.a., with him on a series of Jihad expeditions immediately after the battle of Khaibar. Some eyewitness narrations of these expeditions by Abu Huraira, r.a., are available in Hadith and in early history books. The purpose was to ward off attacks by Jewish and other tribes, which were moving to attack the Muslims. For instance there is a narration by Abu Huraira about the expedition of Wadi al-Qurra in Tabari’s TARIKH, vol. 3. A very severe expedition was that of Zaat ar-raqa’a. Some details in Bukhari’s Sahih indicate that there was only one camel for six mujahideen. They rode by turns and the rough terrain tore up the feet of the Sahaba. Abu Huraira, r.a., prayed Salatul Khauf with the Prophet, pbuh, on this expedition. [Bukhari’s Sahih, vol. 2]
- Abu Huraira, r.a., then took part in major Islamic moves by the Prophet’s, pbuh, army, including the CONQUEST of MAKKA, 8 Hijri, BATTLE of HUNAIN,, and in the expedition of TABOOK, 9 Hijri. Tabook was very difficult and required a journey of 350 miles in severe summer weather, which challenged the Romans for 20 days and foiled their attack plans. [See Bukhari’s Sahih, vol. 2, for Abu Huraira’s participation.]
- After these major moves, the Prophet, pbuh, also sent out Abu Huraira, r.a., in smaller raids to stop various threats. On one such occasion, the Prophet, pbuh, said to Abu Huraira, r.a. “I put you under Allah’s Trust and safeguard and He is the one whose Trust is never wasted.” [ Sunan of Ibn Maja, vol.2]
- During the Caliphate of Abu Bakr, ‘Umar and ‘Usman [Allah be pleased with all three], Abu Huraira, r.a., continued to participate in Jihad. One of the HISTORY CHANGING battles in Islamic history was the BATTLE OF YARMOUK, which brought down the power of the Roman Empire. The historian Ibn Asakir in his Tarikh Damishq writes that the Banu Azd, with its sub group of the Banu Dos, with Abu Huraira, r.a., in its core, was on the RIGHT WING of the Islamic army. The huge Roman army attacked and the outnumbered Muslims would have been wiped out but for the leadership of great companions of the Prophet, pbuh, such as Abu Huraira. Ibn Asakir quotes Abu Huraira, r.a., as he rallied the mujahideen. Abu Huraira said:
“O valiant believers! The hoories of Paradise are awaiting you. Prepare yourself to meet them. Prepare to gain the approach to Allah and to be accepted by Allah. At this time, no place is dearer to Allah than the one where you are standing.”
The ferocious Roman onslaught was beaten back. At that point, another 20,000 Romans attacked the small group led by Abu Huraira, r.a. Khalid ibn al-Waleed, r.a., the overall commander of the Islamic army noted the severe pressure on the right wing of his forces. He launched an all out attack on the Romans and routed them. Yarmouk changed the history of the Middle East forever.
Other historians, Ibn Athir, Ibn Kathir, have noted the participation of Abu Huraira in Jihad as far away as Jilan and Jurjan during the Caliphate of ‘Usman, r.a.
WHY DO SOME SECTARIANS ATTEMPT TO DISCREDIT THIS COMPANION OF OUR RASOOL PBUH? CLICK HERE TO READ……..
[KEY TO ABBREVIATIONS: r.a. = radi Allah unh =Allah be pleased with him.] [pbuh = peace be on him. ]
Imam Bukhari: The Giant of Hadith Scholarship who stands in way of Attempts to Misinterpret the Qur’an
An Introduction: for those coming into the faith or rediscovering it again.
Shawwal 13 is the anniversary of Imam Bukhari’s birth in 194 Hijri. His name is Muhammad and he was known as Abu Abdullah.
“Bukhari” refers to his place of birth, the city of Bukhara, located in Tajikistan, 38 miles west of Samarkand.
I’ll begin with two authentic Hadith of the Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) collected by Imam Bukhari . These teachings are very important in the Islamic culture around the world:
Abu Huraira (Allah be pleased with him) narrates:
The messenger of Allah was asked: Who is deserving of loving care and concern? He (the Prophet) replied:
YOUR MOTHER. And then whom (he was asked). He said:
Your MOTHER. And then? (he was asked) Your Mother (he said). And then? (The questioner continued). He said:
(Al-adab al-mufrad by Imam Bukhari)
(Abi Bakra, Allah be pleased with him, narrates about Prophet Muhammad, pbuh):
Your blood, your goods and your honor are as much protected and safe (forever) as is this day (of Arafa) in this month (of Hajj). Be aware and those of you who are here (today) should pass this on to those who are not here.
(Sahih of Imam Bukhari)
The revolutionary impact of these teachings can be understood if one realizes that Arabia (and the world) was a male dominated society in which there was no concept of basic human rights. The first Hadith puts a woman (the mother) as three times more important than the dominant male. The second hadith gives the protection of Islamic law to life, property and honor (especially the rights of women) and makes these rights as sacred as the holiest days of the Islamic pilgrimage.
Who was the man who made sure that these were authentic teachings of Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) and hence teachings which must be integral to any Islamic community?
Abu Abdullah Muhammad, son of Ismail, al-Bukhari was sharp of intellect with a memory which has had few equals. HE MEMORIZED THE ENTIRE QUR’AN at the AGE OF 9. At the age of 10, he turned his attention to the study of Hadith. At the age of 16, following the performance of Hajj, he decided to stay in Makkah and make the holy city the center of his studies.
A remarkable fact about Imam Bukhari’s early life is that his basic teacher was his mother, a woman of great learning and Islamic awareness. His father Ismail was also an Islamic teacher of piety and learning but he died when the Imam was little.
As he forayed into his study, research and collection of Hadith, Imam Bukhari studied in the schools of Hadith led by the greatest teachers of his era. Later, he himself became the teacher of the greatest scholars of his era. His final book of Hadith, known as al-jami us-Sahih, has been recognized around the world as a source book of Islam SECOND ONLY TO THE QU’RAN.
At that time Islam was a world power and the great and the powerful wanted to use the Qur’an and the Hadith to support their own version of Islam. The last of the SAHABA (companions of the Prophet) died in the year 110 after Hijrah. Hence the possibility of people misquoting the Prophet became very real.
Imam Bukhari understood that sponsorship by vested interests is detrimental to objective Islamic teachings. HENCE THE IMAM STAYED STRICTLY AWAY FROM THE POWER STRUCTURE. He was never a servant or courtier of any ruler, local, regional or national.
Secondly, IMAM BUKHARI AVOIDED USING HIS KNOWLEDGE TO ENRICH HIMSELF. Like Allama Iqbal in our own times, he seemed to have lived in the light of a (not so well authenticated) hadith of the Prophet that:
“Poverty is my pride.” This is a self-imposed poverty for the sake of independence and openness to all ways of thinking beyond the “party line.”
He would earn his living by trade and as a merchant and then would give away his profits, thus returning to his meager means. On some of his journeys, he almost died of starvation rather than beg the local bigwigs for help.
In his research on Hadith, he set standards, which are stricter than any known even in our own times of immediate technologically available information. Some of these need to be mentioned here:
STANDARD FOR RESEARCH ON HADITH SET BY IMAM BUKHARI
1. Did a person who narrated Hadith from a Companion of the Prophet actually meet the Companion, and was that Companion with the Prophet in such-and-such incident?
2. What was the character of a narrator of Hadith?
3. What was his/her memory like? What was his/her age at the time of narration?
4. Was the chain of narrators complete, had a missing link in it or was it fabricated?
5. Which Hadith are linked to which verses of the Qur’an?
6. Sometimes partisans can speak the truth. How does one accept Hadith from narrators who were Shi’ite, Khariji or pro-Caliph?
7. Honest collection of Hadith if objective rules apply but the content is not appealing. (Thus the Hadith literature is an uncensored account of how the SAHABA saw, heard and thought of the Prophet and his era. It leaves critical commentary to scholars and application/implementation to mujtahideen who use their reason to understand the Qur’an and the Hadith.)
FALSE IDEAS ABOUT IMAM BUKHARI
Some people have been spreading doubts about Hadith. Goldziher and Schacht’s work against Hadith has been fed into missionary publications. From here some sincere but mislead Muslim scholars picked up the attack on Hadith. One important misled but sincere person was Ghulam Ahmed Pervez who wrote extensively against Hadith. Dr. Fazlur Rahman sincerely believed that the ISNAD or chains of narration of Hadith had been invented in the third century of Islam. His work gained popularity among western-educated Muslims till Dr. Azmi published his research which showed not only authenticity of ISNAD but also that Hadith was written down in every era of early Islam, starting with the time of the Prophet and the Sahaba.
Some misled sectarians believe that Bukhari’s Hadith narration was meant to help the Ummayed rulers who had, according to the sectarian line, “usurped the right of Hazrat Ali” to be the Caliph. This idea is totally absurd because Imam Bukhari was not alive during the entire Ummayad dynasty. The Umayyad’s ruled Rajab 60 hijri to zulhijjah 132 hijri and 4 years of turmoil after that. Imam Bukhari was born in 194. So he could not have been influenced by the political power of the “ruling Ummayads.”
There are others who see traces of Shi’ism in Imam Bukhari’s collection. These again are off the mark. The Abbasids established their regime in 136. When the greatest Abbasid, Haroon ar-Rasheed, began his rule, Imam Bukhari’s birth was still one year away. When the powerful Mammon ar-Rasheed was ruling, Imam Bukhari had just started his studies and had moved to Makkah, which was outside the Baghdad orbit of Abbasid influence.
Some misled people believe that most Hadith must have been false and hence Imam Bukhari selected so few out of “six million.” This idea is based on total lack of understanding of Hadith. In Hadith studies, not only the matan (the text) of what the Prophet said but also each chain of narration (sanad) of that hadith counts as one hadith. Thus the first text in Bukhari’s SAHIH:
“Actions shall be judged by intentions …” had 700 chains of narration; hence in Hadith literature that one text would count as 700 hadith.
Some people justify their own ignorance. They think that Imam Bukhari was a narrator of Hadith, which he was not. He was a researcher, compiler and collector.
Still others attack Imam Bukhari to INDIRECTLY ABUSE, INSULT and DISCREDIT the sahaba (again a sectarian hand is often at work here). How come Abu Huraira (Allah be pleased with him) narrated so many hadith? Didn’t he live in Ameer Muawiyyah’s palace? Etc. The life of the Prophet (pbuh) (other than what Imam Bukhari compiled) shows that Abu Huraira used to spend a maximum of his time listening to and collecting the teachings of the Prophet, memorizing and writing down, while others lived more “normal” lives.
Hazrat ‘Ayesha R.A., Abu Huraira and other mukassirin (those who have narrated many hadith of the Prophet), lived for far more years than some of the key figures among the Prophet’s companions. They were asked questions by newcomers who were flooding into Islam and hence taught much more. Other greats like Abu Bakr, Umar, Uthman, Ali (Allah be pleased with them) were not available to so many people after the Prophet died. The last three were assassinated. Hence owing to historical reasons, some narrators narrated more than others.
Some readers among our westernized elites object to the pre-scientific and pre-“modern” lifestyle, which often appears in the Hadith literature including that of Imam Bukhari. The Prophet had to go out into the desert to urinate, etc. The Prophet bathed out of a bucket along with his wife (shocking! eh). The Prophet talked about women’s menses and women among his companions talked about Muslim’s duties related to sex and “private” life. On expeditions when food ran out, the Muslims had to decide whether to eat lizards. The Prophet had fine tastes but did not want his companions to starve. What happens if a fly falls into a bucket full of food or solid shortening? Worse, what if a rat falls in? Should the entire food supply be thrown away? (In a culture of scarcity).
Also many readers find Hadith irksome simply because they don’t want to study patiently. They rush to the assumption that the headlines provided by Imam Bukhari are also Hadith. Or they take it that the words of a Sahabi and the words of the Prophet are supposedly of equal value because they are in Sahih Bukhari.
Where Imam Bukhari provides a narration which shows the low esteem in which women were held at that time and then a narration from the blessed ‘Ayesha which shows the Prophet changing those attitudes with his authoritative words, our misled anti-Hadith people do not see the connection and consider it a “contradiction.” It applies to wartime lack of rules in those days (taking slaves, taking part-time mistresses, muta’, temporary marriage, etc.). The misled people see the narration about what used to happen and DO NOT SEE what the Prophet did to stop them and how he went about it stage by stage.
Scholarship of HADITH of course preceded Imam Bukhari and he was one of a galaxy of greats, even though the greatest. I am presenting Imam Bukhari because the misled people think they can destroy the entire corpus of Hadith by attacking Imam Bukhari.
I offer this article to the Ummah with all humility. If you like it, please distribute it. If you find errors, do let me know.
And Allah is the only One Who knows all