WHAT IS WEAK (DAI’F) HADITH?
GUEST ARTICLE: from asqfish.wordpress.com
Asalaam o alaikum Readers,
I am not a Faqih nor pretend to be one, but there are so many disrespectful comments flying around about Daif hadith that I decided to research it. Here is what I found, I am posting the most succinct ones.
For those who like cliff notes here it is:
Daif Hadith is not fabricated hadith
Daif hadith can be used as examples to follow but rulings of halal and haram cannot be derived from it.
The must dos and Dont dos cannot be derived from Weak hadith.(for left brain people:)
Weak hadith are good notations about various aspects of life and can be used to inspire oneself. (for right brain people:)
Allah knows best!
WHAT IS A WEAK HADITH?
A hadith which fails to reach the status of Hasan is Da`if. Usually, the weakness is one of discontinuity in the isnad, in which case the hadith could be Mursal, Mu`allaq, Mudallas, Munqati` or Mu`dal, according to the precise nature of the discontinuity, or one of a reporter having a disparaged character, such as due to his telling lies, excessive mistakes, opposition to the narration of more reliable sources, involvement in innovation, or ambiguity surrounding his person.
The smaller the number and importance of defects, the less severe the weakness. The more the defects in number and severity, the closer the hadith will be to being Maudu` (fabricated).76
Some ahadith, according to the variation in the nature of the weakness associated with its reporters, rank at the bottom of the Hasan grade or at the top of the Da`if grade. Reporters such as `Abdullah b. Lahi’ah (a famous judge from Egypt), `Abd al-Rahman b. Zaid b. Aslam, Abu Bakr b. Abi Maryam al-Himsi, Faraj b. Fadalah, and Rishdin b. Sa’d attract such types of varying ranks as they are neither extremely good preservers nor totally abandoned by the traditionists.77
A WEAK HADITH IS NOT FABRICATED.
Definition of Weak Hadith:
A weak hadith is a hadith that fails to meet all of the conditions for an acceptable hadith. (the five conditions for a hadith to be acceptable). If it does not meet all of the conditions then it is a rejected hadith. If it fails to meet even one of the conditions of the acceptable hadith then it is a weak hadith.
Conditions for authenticity of hadith
- Chain is unbroken
- Every narrator is adl (person of integrity)
- Every narrator is dhabit (academic soundness, proficient/accurate) ***
- No shudhoodh (cannot contradict stronger sources for both the chain and the text)
- No 3illah (Cannot contain any hidden damaging defects; refers to both the chain and the text)
Daeef (Weak) is a type of Hadith that has a narrator who either doesn’t have a strong memory or isn’t virtuous.
Weak (Daeef) Hadith is only reliable in excellence, not in rulings (permissibility or prohibition will not be proven for it. Yes, good deeds or the prominence of an individual can be).
The result of this is that a weak Hadith is not a lie, false or fabricated (contrary to the propaganda of Ghair-Muqallids). The Muhadditheen have kept its rank less than Sahih and Hasan merely for caution.
If a weak Hadith becomes a Hasan Hadith for some reason, it also becomes completely credible, with both excellence and rulings able to be proven from it.
Literal Meaning: Weak.
Technical Meaning: That Hadith which does not fulfill the criteria of Hasan. In this Hadith there is some defect either in the chain of transmission or in proper understanding of the transmitter, or its contents are not in perfect agreement with Islamic beliefs and practices.
It must be in mind that while quoting Dhaeef Hadith one must not say, “Rasulullah (Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam) said “but one must take precautions and may say that it is quoted from him etc”.
Status: Whether to act upon Dhaeef Hadith or not, it is controversial. There is usually consensus that Dhaeef Hadith cannot be used in Masail but can be used in Fadhail, Mustahab or Makrooh only when it fulfills three preconditions.
- Its defect (of being Dhaaef) is not of extreme grade.
- The Hadith comes under some well known principle of Shari’ah.
- Acting upon it should not be thought obligatory.
As per Hanafi school of thought, Dhaeef Hadith is preferred over Qiyas (analogical deduction).
As already stated that if Dhaeef Hadith gets support from other sources, then it gets elevated to the status of Hasan Ligairihi.
When to quote Dhaeef Hadith
It is permissible to quote Dha’eef Hadith if:
- It is not related to Islamic beliefs.
- It is not related to Halal and Haram.
- It is related to things like motivation or admonition.(Targeeb or Tarheeb)
EVERY WORD OF THE QURAN WAS TRANSMITTED THROUGH HADITH
How the Qur’an was Transmitted. Every verse was connected to Hadith.
Answering the Fitna of Rejection of Hadith.
The following is a segment of the Juma Khutba given by Dr. Kaukab Siddique in Baltimore on October 25:
1. The Book called the Qur’an was with Allah and was revealed to Muhammad, pbuh, over a period of 23 years.
2. Each time it was revealed, it was a WAHI or revelation on his heart and soul, NEVER IN WRITING.
3. He would be helped by the Angel to memorize it. Then he would recite it to one of few Companions who could write and the sahabi would write. The Prophet, pbuh, himself could NEITHER READ nor WRITE.
4. When the Prophet, pbuh, would tell a Companion what had been revealed and ask him to write, that was Hadithe Muhammad, pbuh. Thus EVERY VERSE in the Qur’an was transmitted by hadith.
5. In Madina, the Prophet, pbuh, instituted writing as a skill among the converts to Islam. Thus as longer and longer suras were revealed, there were more and more katibs [scribes] to write them down.
6. The Book was with Allah and was gradually revealed VERBALLY, not in writing, to the Prophet, pbuh. This should be clear to all.
6. Thus when the world IQRA is translated as read or recite, it meant that Allah was going to educate the Prophet, pbuh, to be able to recite the Book coming down [nazil] from heaven.
7. When the Qur’an says, “Book”, it is not implying that the whole book had been revealed right away. The whole Book was with Allah.
8. As time went on, the Prophet, pbuh, through Allah’s Guidance told the sahaba [his Companions] which Sura to place where. Thus the first revelation, Alaq or Iqra became sura 96.
9. Again all this arrangement of the Qur’an was through Hadith, the Prophet’s directions to the sahaba,
10. Sometimes, a few words were placed by the Prophet, pbuh, within an entire sura which had already been revealed. Again, this is Hadith in action. The Qur’an thus is UNTHINKABLE without hadith. There is no Islam without Muhammad, pbuh.
The Qur’an uses the term RECITE in various forms, such as YATLU, TATLU, ATLU, YATALA. The role of the Prophet’s, pbuh, hadith, is best defined thus in Sura 2 verse 151:
“Allah has conferred a great favor on the believers, sending among them a messenger from among themselves, who RECITES [YATLU] unto them the Signs of Allah, and purifies them and INSTRUCTS them in the Book and Wisdom.”
The whole process was verbal, not in writing:
“Do not move your tongue concerning the Qur’an to make haste therewith. It is for us to collect it [in your heart], so you may recite it [quranu’hu], and when We have recited it, follow its recital [quranuhu] Nay, more, it is for US to expound it [through your tongue.” [75:16-19]
So, dear Muslims, the Prophet, pbuh, was not carrying a written Book around with him. It was all verbal and became WRITING when the Sahaba, r.a., wrote it down and memorized it.
So, bless the Sahaba, r.a., after you bless the prophet, pbuh, among them the great compiler of the entire revelation, Usman r.a., ibn Affan.
Thus those who say “Qur’an only” or that hadith was produced in the 3rd century are playing into the hands of the Zionists and the Rand Corporation.
EVERY WORD of the Qur’an was transmitted through hadith.
I conclude with this beautiful Hadith:
Fatima Zahra, r.a., narrates: “The Prophet informed me secretly, ‘Jibril used to recite the Qur’an to me and I to him once a year, but this year he has recited the entire Qur’an with me twice. I do not think but that my death is approaching.’ ” [Sahih Bukhari, Fadail al-Qur’an.]
Kaukab Siddique, PhD
Chairperson, Department of Languages and Literature, Interim
WHO IS NOT FORGIVEN?
Rasul Allah (sal Allahu alaihi wasallam) said:
“All of my ummah are apt to be forgiven, except for those who commit sins openly.” [Bukhari]
لا تصوموا حتى تروا الهلال ، ولا تفطروا حتى تروه ، فإن غم عليكم فاقدروا له
“Do not commence fasting (Ramadan) till you see the new moon, and do not cease fasting (perform Eid) till you see it. But if the weather is cloudy, or there is a smog in the sky (which prevents sighting of the moon), then complete 30 days of the month.” [Sahih Bukhari, Vol. 1, Page 256]
In another narration, the Messenger of Allah SallAllaho Alaihi wa Sallam said,
الشهر تسع وعشرون ليلة ، فلا تصوموا حتى تروه ، فإن غم عليكم فأكملوا العدة ثلاثين
“The month sometimes is of twenty-nine days, but do not fast till you see the moon. But if the weather is cloudy or there is a smog, then complete thirty days of the month.” [Sahih Bukhari, Vol. 1, Page 256]
WHO WAS ABU HURAIRA r.a?
Who was Abu Huraira RA? (The lover of cats so much that this became his name)
There can be no doubt that Muhammad Mustafa, the final messenger of Allah, pbuh, loved Abu Huraira, r.a. and in turn Abu Huraira, r.a., loved Muhammad, pbuh, more than anyone or anything in the world.
Here is a short history to this companion of Prophet Muhammad pbuh who was an avid scribe and noted each and every moment with Prophet Muhammad pbuh in as much detail as possible.
HERE ARE SOME FACTS ABOUT HIM:
- Abu Huraira, r.a., along with 70 others from the Banu Dos tribe, embraced Islam and did Hijrah to join forces with Muhammad, pbuh.
- Abu Huraira, r.a., left everything in the world to embrace the Prophet, pbuh. He took his mother and his slave with him on the journey to Madinah leaving everything else behind. When he reached Madinah, he found that the Prophet, pbuh, was in Khaibar, fighting a Jewish tribe.
- Abu Huraira, r.a., joined the Prophet, pbuh, in the final days of the battle at Khaibar, in the 7th year of the Hijrah. His first act on meeting the Prophet, pbuh, was TO FREE HIS SLAVE. Islam teaches the freeing the slaves and Abu Huraira, r.a., started his life with the Prophet, pbuh, by freeing his slave.
- The Prophet, pbuh, took Abu Huraira, r.a., with him on a series of Jihad expeditions immediately after the battle of Khaibar. Some eyewitness narrations of these expeditions by Abu Huraira, r.a., are available in Hadith and in early history books. The purpose was to ward off attacks by Jewish and other tribes, which were moving to attack the Muslims. For instance there is a narration by Abu Huraira about the expedition of Wadi al-Qurra in Tabari’s TARIKH, vol. 3. A very severe expedition was that of Zaat ar-raqa’a. Some details in Bukhari’s Sahih indicate that there was only one camel for six mujahideen. They rode by turns and the rough terrain tore up the feet of the Sahaba. Abu Huraira, r.a., prayed Salatul Khauf with the Prophet, pbuh, on this expedition. [Bukhari’s Sahih, vol. 2]
- Abu Huraira, r.a., then took part in major Islamic moves by the Prophet’s, pbuh, army, including the CONQUEST of MAKKA, 8 Hijri, BATTLE of HUNAIN,, and in the expedition of TABOOK, 9 Hijri. Tabook was very difficult and required a journey of 350 miles in severe summer weather, which challenged the Romans for 20 days and foiled their attack plans. [See Bukhari’s Sahih, vol. 2, for Abu Huraira’s participation.]
- After these major moves, the Prophet, pbuh, also sent out Abu Huraira, r.a., in smaller raids to stop various threats. On one such occasion, the Prophet, pbuh, said to Abu Huraira, r.a. “I put you under Allah’s Trust and safeguard and He is the one whose Trust is never wasted.” [ Sunan of Ibn Maja, vol.2]
- During the Caliphate of Abu Bakr, ‘Umar and ‘Usman [Allah be pleased with all three], Abu Huraira, r.a., continued to participate in Jihad. One of the HISTORY CHANGING battles in Islamic history was the BATTLE OF YARMOUK, which brought down the power of the Roman Empire. The historian Ibn Asakir in his Tarikh Damishq writes that the Banu Azd, with its sub group of the Banu Dos, with Abu Huraira, r.a., in its core, was on the RIGHT WING of the Islamic army. The huge Roman army attacked and the outnumbered Muslims would have been wiped out but for the leadership of great companions of the Prophet, pbuh, such as Abu Huraira. Ibn Asakir quotes Abu Huraira, r.a., as he rallied the mujahideen. Abu Huraira said:
“O valiant believers! The hoories of Paradise are awaiting you. Prepare yourself to meet them. Prepare to gain the approach to Allah and to be accepted by Allah. At this time, no place is dearer to Allah than the one where you are standing.”
The ferocious Roman onslaught was beaten back. At that point, another 20,000 Romans attacked the small group led by Abu Huraira, r.a. Khalid ibn al-Waleed, r.a., the overall commander of the Islamic army noted the severe pressure on the right wing of his forces. He launched an all out attack on the Romans and routed them. Yarmouk changed the history of the Middle East forever.
Other historians, Ibn Athir, Ibn Kathir, have noted the participation of Abu Huraira in Jihad as far away as Jilan and Jurjan during the Caliphate of ‘Usman, r.a.
WHY DO SOME SECTARIANS ATTEMPT TO DISCREDIT THIS COMPANION OF OUR RASOOL PBUH? CLICK HERE TO READ……..
[KEY TO ABBREVIATIONS: r.a. = radi Allah unh =Allah be pleased with him.] [pbuh = peace be on him. ]
CAN ONE WOMAN BE A WITNESS IN ISLAM?
HADITH: How the Prophet Muhammad, pbuh, changed the Condition of Women
The Prophet, pbuh, accepted ONE woman’s witness in a crucial matter in spite of opposition by a man. Some people incorrectly think that One woman’s witness is not acceptable in Islam. Not true:
“Uqba bin Harith narrates: I had married a woman but a Black woman came and said that ‘I have breastfed both of you as children.’ I Said to the Prophet, pbuh, I had married such and such woman but this Black woman said that she has fed both of us, and she is a liar. The Prophet, pbuh, turned his face away. I again approached [him] and said: she is a liar. The Prophet, pbuh, said: How can you keep your wife when she [the Black woman] says, she breastfed both of you. Let her go.”
[Hadith in Sahih of Bukhari, kitab-un-nikah.]
Thus in a matter as serious as the annulment of a marriage, Islam accepts ONE WOMAN’s witness. Let none say otherwise. This was at a time when most of the world believed that women are chattel or have no souls.